Question 1. What Is Business Analysis?
Answer :
Business analysis can be described as the sequence of activities which are implemented in order to assess the business requirement needs and to fit the required solution so as to bring around the success of the organization and business. So, this sequence of task is normally performed by a “Business Analyst” or BA. 

Question 2. What Are The Industry And Professional Standards Followed By Business Analyst?
Answer :
Industry standards that have been set for the BAs to follow are OOAD principles and Unified Modeling Language (UML). This is a common language used by business analysts all around the world to draft the functional requirements.

Question 3. Who Uses The Output Produced By Business Analyst?
Answer :
The output will be used by the Both IT and Non-IT People, as IT people use this document as key for the building of the application and Non-IT people use those document where they can see prototype of their application.

Question 4. Why Excellent Communication Skill Is Essential For A Business Analyst?
Answer :
A BA is one who sits with the client understands it and then tells the IT people what needs to be done hence BA needs to have excellent communication skills.

Question 5. What Is The Difference Between Data Model And An Entity Relationship Diagram?
Answer :
A data model is a model which shows how data is stored and used for e.g. a normal database.
It has 3 main parts:

Structural part:- how data is structured.

Integrity part:- Rules governing structure.

Manipulation part:- operators used to select,update,querry that data,eg select, update, delete commands in sql.

ENTERPRISE DATA MODEL(ENTERPRISE RELATIONSHIP MODELING) :- This can be called as an conceptual model or semantic model. The sub parts of an ERM are:

Entity:- It is an object, eg employees, computer.

Relationship:- It captures how two or more entities are related to each other.

Attributes:- Every entity has its own sets of attributes (e.g. PAN no in India for each employee or SSN in US).

Question 6. What Is The Educational Qualification Required For A Business Analyst?
Answer :
There is no specific qualification for a business analyst. Well, if you are a management graduate it is an added advantage since they have better communication skills. One important thing a BA needs to have is domain knowledge or business knowledge. Unless he/she understands the client’s business process thoroughly they cannot draft the requirements properly.

Question 7. Mention The Components Of Uml?
Answer :
UML uses many concepts from many sources.

For Structure: Actor, Attribute, Class, Component, Interface, Object, Package.

For Behavior: Activity, Event, Message, Method, Operation, State, use case.

For Relationships: Aggregation, Association, Composition, Depends, Generalization (or Inheritance).

Other Concepts: Stereotype. It qualifies the symbol it is attached to.

Question 8. Mention Some Of The Important Points A Business Analyst Must Take Care While Preparing Business Plan?
Answer :
While Creating Business Document, Make sure you start from small problems. Don’t jump to big problems right way. Keep the Business sponsors and IT folks in the loop. Make sure your document clearly state Exceptions, Assumptions and Limitations. Sometime you need to keep in mind the legal issues. Business document should be well written for usability and for future projects.

Question 9. Why Is Business Analyst Position Vital In An Organization?
Answer :
The position is important because a BA is a people’s person when it comes to the users and an IT person when it comes to the developers. He can communicate with the users in jargon that they are comfortable with and is able to understand them in order to collect solid business requirements. Simultaneously he can effectively communicate these requirements and support them with documentation for a developers benefit.

Question 10. What Are The Quality Procedures Followed Normally By A Business Analyst?
Answer :
For quality there is no specific mark of course Six sigma and ITIL (Information technology infrastructural library United kingdom) are certain quality standard establishing organizations and methods. But As a normal the following should be followed:
The quality of communication while gathering requirement should be excellent and outstanding. Sometimes users are just looking for functionality in system and they are not even able to say that what exactly will be their dream functionality which will be most convenient to them. In that case BA should explore them and figure out the exactly demanded requirements.

Question 11. How Is Requirement Analysis Done By Business Analyst?
Answer :
Requirement session is usually done through JAD session. Business Folks and Major sponsors are always there along with some technical folks. Business analyst then goes through each requirement and asks for the feedback. If Business Sponsors and Technical Folks think that all the requirements are according to the business and won’t be a barrier to existing system. They get the official signoff on Business Requirement document. IT manager and Business manager both do the sign off on that business requirement document.

Question 12. Does The Business Analyst Interact With Clients Directly? If So State The Reason For The Same?
Answer :
It depends on the project to project it is not always the same that we do interact with the clients directly, some time there will be a team whom might be interacting with the client and gives you the requirement and if have questions either we do talk with that team or our manager.

Question 13. Mention The Difference Between Business Process Improvement And Business Process Reengineering?
Answer :
Business process improvement implies changing a step sub step or any part of the process i.e. process is not completely changed In BPR we actually study the business and find out what is the best way I can carry out the process and change the whole way the process runs(business process redesign).

Question 14. What Is Uml?
Answer :
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling and other non-software systems. The UML represents a collection of best engineering practices that have proven successful in the modeling of large and complex systems.

Question 15. How Is Business Plan Evaluated?
Answer :
A business plan is evaluated by checking the contents of the plan such as if the plan have based on the resource planning and envisioning phase of the project.

Question 16. What Are The Problems Business Analyst Could Face During Gathering Business Requirements?
Answer :
The availability of the people (e.g. managers, supervisors and the end users) the BA wants to talk with for gathering business requirements. These people have regular daily works to do and their time to spend in the gathering sometimes hard to schedule and for this reason gathering business requirements is delay.

Question 17. What Can A Business Analyst Do Differently Than Project Or Program Manager (design Architect) With Respect To Successfully Getting The Project Implementation Done?
Answer :

Business Analyst role is not entirely different than Project manager role but Project Manager is bigger role than business Analyst.

Project manager is responsible for all the deliverables like

schedules/ timelines

resources management

risk management

Daily/weekly status report to project stack holders etc.

where as business analyst sometimes report to project manager or may report to business manager.

Business Analyst deals with business users to gather requirements prepare RD, FD and coordinate with development team for development and then do the testing involve with users in testing get the sign off and move component to live.

Question 18. Where Would You Document Functional And Non Functional Requirements (i.e. Deliverable)?
Answer :
Functional Requirements are documented in the SRS document / Use Case Document. Non Functional requirements are listed in the SRS document.

Question 19. How Do You Identify The Basic Flow? What Would You Do If Someone Was Struggling To Determine The Basic Flow For A Use Case?
Answer :
Basic flow for use case can be identified from Business Requirement Documents or Functional Requirement Documents as these use cases are prepared on the basis of these requirement.

Question 20. What Is The Relationship Between Use Case And Test Case?
Answer :
A use case is written from a “user” perspective describing the interaction of a piece of software between the user and the software. These are written in common language typically from the business or user point of view and in enough detail for the developer to create a piece of software. Typically written in a MS Word type tool. Use cases capture the functional requirements of the system. It describes the expected interaction the user will experience, in detail. The audience is the business, for signoff, and technology for development.

Question 21. What Would You Do If The Client Says That You And The Other Analysts Cannot Directly Talk To The Users?
Answer :
If this happens then explain the purpose of your talk (e.g. capture requirements) and why it’s important to talk to users directly (e.g. the quality of requirements will be better if they comes directly from the users mouth). Explain them that it will be a high risk to the project if analyst can’t talk to the users directly. Client can give access to indirect (surrogate) users but explain that the quality of requirements will be not good. Hopefully your client will agree by now otherwise flag it as a higher risk in Business Requirement Document and highlight during your meeting with your PM and Project Sponsors. Now, it’s your PM or project sponsors duty to provide you access to those direct users. If they can’t than you are safe anyways.

Question 22. We Are Going To A Client On Monday To Help Them With Their Requirements. We Have Just Received A Business Case From The Client, And They Have No Tools In Place. What Would We Do The First Week?
Answer :
First week in this case is always advisable to do a due diligence of the amount of work, expectations, existing process, time lines with the constraints surrounding. One of major constraints in this case would include lack of tools.
Depending on the project timelines, complexity and volume of the project present your recommendations for tools to be used and the estimated budget allocation required. Document the comparison of productivity and flexibility with and without tools used. This should help the project sponsors to take a call on going for tools.

Question 23. Version Control And Configuration Management Are Terms Used Widely In The Business Industry, Write Short Notes About The Terms?
Answer :
By definition, version control is essentially a subset of configuration management. It is usually concerned with the handling changes arising in previous documents as opposed to configuration management which essentially handles the individual components.

Question 24. Good Documentation Management Systems Are Highly Recommended In System Development; Briefly Describe The Factors That Contribute To A Good Documentation Management System?
Answer :
For a documentation system to be considered good, the following factors should be prevalent in it: It should be made in such a way that it can accommodate future changes, including version changes, bearing system security features such as providing access only to the allowed users, i.e. have good authentication features. In general, one should take in data as well as information security measures in place, putting in mind that the documentation should also be able to bend to the changing needs of its users as well as the market conditions.

Question 25. State The Different Software Methodologies?
Answer :
The term software methodology, software development methodology and software process mean almost the same thing in computer software or system development, i.e. the activities carried out by computer system engineers or computer software engineers in an attempt to procure particular computer software that servers a certain function or purpose. This includes the framework adopted, structure, plan as well as the control of the resources engaged in the software or system development process.

Question 26. Describe The Abbreviation Ooad As Used In Object Oriented Programming?
Answer :
The term OOAD is an abbreviation of the phrase Object Oriented Analysis and Design. Contrary to the traditional programming, also called procedural programming whereby the entire code of a given program is written line by line, from scratch. There is a new more powerful approach to software development or simply programming referred to as the Object Technology where predefined objects pertaining to particular situations are pre-designed by experienced software engineers and then the programmers just call them into their code in order to implement a given function in their code.

Question 27. Describe The Meaning Of The Term Data Mapping?
Answer :
By definition, the term data mapping is the process by which a system developer creates data element mappings that relates two models of data (databases) in order to assist in data integration. This usually assists in the following manner:

Data mediation or transformation between the source and the destination of data.

Assisting in data lineage analysis by identifying the data relationships.

Assists in data masking by discovering sensitive data.

Assists in data de-identification process.

Assists in consolidating multiple databases into one thus identification of redundant columns and advising the developers for consideration or even elimination.

Question 28. Describe The Term Black Box Testing?
Answer :
Black box testing is the type of testing whereby the entire unit is tested as a whole without considering the contents or even how the inner components of the unit under test work, the tester’s only consideration is to enter a known input signal and check whether the output behavior is the one expected out of that unit given his input signal.

Question 29. Give The Importance Of Using A Flowchart?
Answer :
It is easier to interpret as it is graphical in nature and thus all persons involved in the project development can understand it with ease.

Question 30. Briefly Explain The Use Case Model?
Answer :
This is a model used by software engineers to describe the business environment of a given project. It encompasses of a series of workflow that are pertained to a particular actor.

Question 31. What Do You Understand By The Term Uml?
Answer :
The term UML is an abbreviation of the term Unified Modeling Language which is the standard language used in construction of as well as visualization and documentation of varied system components. It has a collection of graphical notation techniques used in the development of abstract models for certain specific systems.

Question 32. Describe The Importance Of An Activity Diagram?
Answer :
This is the diagram used in a business system to show the workflow involved, activities happening as well as the completed actions. In a company comprising of several departments e.g. the medical department, accounting department, and even the human resource department, usually each department has its own peculiar privileges to the system, for instance the medical department can only be allowed to access the screens related to their activities such as medical records while the human resource department will be allowed to view only the screens which are relevant to them too, thus these activity diagrams assist in showing the relationship between particular activities with their relevant and related departments so that during coding, the coders may refer to them to implement the discrepancies accordingly. Designers too can be guided by these activity diagrams.

Question 33. How Many Types Of Diagrams Do You Know And What Do You Know About Them?
Answer :
Am aware of two types of diagrams namely the use case diagram and the collaboration diagram, the use case diagram has been discussed above and as a result I will only talk about the collaboration diagram here, these are diagrams put into being by modeling the objects of a given systems and then representing the prevalent associations between the objects in questions with the use of links.

Question 34. What Is The Main Quality Of A Good Requirement?
Answer :
The requirement should be good, clear, understandable, and consistent and should be easily verifiable.

Question 35. What Do You Understand By Uml?
Answer :
UML is basically Unified Modeling Language. This is the standard language used in the system to understand, document, construct different components in the system.

Question 36. What Are Different Diagrams To Be Known By A Ba?
Answer :
Entity relationship diagram, data flow diagram, use case diagram, class diagram, activity diagram, state chart diagram, sequence diagram, collaboration diagram, component diagrams, deployment diagrams etc..
Use case diagram: basically explains the business environment. Series of all related actions performed by actor.
Activity diagram: Used in the early stage of analysis and designing level. It describes each individual component.
Sequence diagram: It tells the objects interactions with each other’s arranged in time sequence.

Question 37. Where Did You Use Rational Rose & Requisite Pro?
Answer :
When we created different modules of requirements for different functions, and finally collected all together and made a single requirement document, we used requisite pro to do this. And we used rational rose to create the business model as a visual representation.

Question 38. What Do Understand By Version Control & Configuration Management?
Answer :
Basically version control is a part of configuration management. Mainly it handles when the previous document changes. Where as configuration management handles the individual component.

Question 39. What Are Different Software Methodologies?
Answer :
SDLC, RUP, SEI-CMM, Six sigma, SWOT, Cost benefit analysis, Risk analysis, Gap analysis.

Question 40. What Is Ooad?
Answer :
Object oriented analysis and designing. Used in coding od object oriented languages like c++, Java, and SAP Basis etc.

Executive Business Analyst Interview Questions
Question 41. What Is Uat?
Answer :

User acceptance testing.

If the UAT fails, BA did not understand the requirements properly.

Question 42. What Do You Mean By Data Mapping?
Answer :
It is the mapping of data from source system to a destination system.

Business Objectives Interview Questions
Question 43. What Is Black Box Testing?
Answer :
It is completely a functional testing. i.e the tester need not know how it works technically. He only bothers what input he is giving and what output he is getting.

Question 44. What Do You Mean By White Box Testing?
Answer :
It requires slight programming knowledge to examine the outputs.

Question 45. What Is Bug?
Answer :
Mainly used to see the performance issues and system hangs.

Question 46. How Do You Measure The Quality Of A Product?
Answer :
We do it by seeing min bugs in the product according to standards maintained by company.

Question 47. What Is Rad?
Answer :

It is called as rapid application development.

It is a development process that is used to build applications in smaller periods like 50-70 days i.e with some compromises.

Question 48. What Is Etl ?
Answer :
Extraction Transformation and loading. Used mainly in data warehousing.

Question 49. How Do You Resolve Issues?
Answer :
I would rather focus on issues and the facts related. Origin of issue, severity of the issue, implications and possible solutions to solve the issue. Try not to focus on the person who brought up the issue. Another important part is how to avoid similar issues in future.

Question 50. We Have Met Several Business Analysts. Why Are You The One We Should Hire?
Answer :
Give definite examples of your skills and accomplishments. Be positive, and emphasize how your background matches the job description. Mention any software packages and spreadsheet software you are familiar with. Also let them know if you have advanced knowledge of any of the software.

Question 51. What Are The Qualities You Have That Makes You Suitable For The Position Of Business Analyst?
Answer :
As a Business Analyst, one always have the top notch communication skills. A perfect mix of technical knowledge and business market knowledge is highly essential. I consider myself a very quick learner and with a good ability to communicate with the development teams and the customers, I think I can certainly make a good difference to the organization on the whole. Ability to deal with conformance tests and identify the prominent parts of the use cases and track them through time will make me more than efficient in the overall work that is involved.

Question 52. How Do You See Your Future As A Business Analyst?
Answer :
I have always liked the career of Business Analyst not just because of the management perspective but also because of the responsibilities that would be held in order to make the entire project successful one.. Growing with the organizations success as a more prominent and effective analyst has always been in my mind right through. I would also like to take up the BA certifications like the PRINCE 2 in the near future. This would help me grow in a field that I like most, in a more professional way.

Question 53. What Do You Think Is An Important Characteristic That A Business Analyst Should Have To Tide Over Tough Times Of Project?
Answer :
The first and foremost character that a Business Analyst has to show is confidence. Without that aspect, the interactions with customers and clients can never be positive. Especially during the rough times of project when there are development related issues that are being handled, the customer has to be given the right positive picture from the business/development perspective. This has to be done and handled by the Business Analyst. Not just self-confidence but the confidence that he places on the other teammates come into prominence.

Question 54. How Would You Make Most Sense Out Of The Business Requirements To The Developers?
Answer :
The following steps will detail out the procedural way of professionally dealing with this:

Identify the scope of the project.

Take out the key features expected by the client. Reason out the most critical aspects of the system that has to be built.

Depict the business use oriented UML diagram and derive it further to the specificity of what is needed from the technology side of development.

Detail out the use cases that will make the input from client clear to the developers. Refinement should always be done with peer discussions.

Activity, work-flow and data-flow diagrams are of immense importance in detailing out the requirement. Identifying the best modeling technique and representation of the deciphered Client input will finally go through to the Development team across series of meetings.

Question 55. What Are The Most Important Software Tools That Ba Should Be Accessing To Coordinate The Team Through The Project?
Answer :
The most important tools are meant for diagrammatically representing the project through its various phases. In this sense, the most important software tools are:

MS-Word : Requirement gathering and discussions will customers will mostly be through Word documents, be it the marketing or business document.

MS-Visio: This will be one of the most important tool that every BA has to have knowledge about. This will help you coordinate the project at every level of development.

IBM-Rational Suite: This is a good tool to get good representations of requirements gathering and other functional diagrams.

Other Testing Tools: Most of the time it is better to get involved in the QA tests as a Business Analyst. So a good knowledge about the QTP, Load Runner etc will be of use. Other than these, MS SharePoint, SQL databases will also find good use in the career of the Business Analyst.

Question 56. How Does A Business Analyst Play An Important Role In The Initial Stages Of The Project?
Answer :
To do it right the first time, has always been the motto for projects that are running under a tight schedule. To find out the right requirement thus is important. Translating the requirements from client to the developers is essential for the project to kick off on the right note. If this stage goes off-track, then you can be jeopardising the future of the entire project.

Question 57. What Are The Different Documents That Can Come Across To The Business Analyst?
Answer :
The documents that are responsible to be completed as a Business Analyst may include:

Study of Feasibility.

Scope & Prospect of Project.

Business Requirements Document.

Functional Requirements document including UML, Activity and dataflow diagrams.

Fact sheet for constraints from technical side (as prescribed from client).

Testing phase documents including QA Test requirements, plan and types of tests that have to be considered before delivery.

Question 58. What Are The Things That Have To Be Considered While Writing A Business Document?
Answer :
Never should we bring out the small glitches on the top. We have to see through the eyes of the business persons and should always try to instill confidence in them, as much as we have on ourselves. As what they expect is the outer level of details, we should bring out the expectation, assumptions and other such criteria into picture clearly.

Question 59. How Can A Ba Be Of Assistance To The Marketing Team?
Answer :
The BA has a good share of both business knowledge and technical knowledge pertaining to a specific domain. So when it comes to marketing a product or procuring a project, he can give his views and prospect oriented perspective in a more acceptable manner to the customers. This makes him a good advantageous role in marketing department of an organization.

Question 60. Ba Is The Bridge Between The It And Non-it Persons When It Comes A Software System. Does It Mean That Decision Making Responsibility Can Be Rested His Hand Entirely?
Answer :
No, that is not the advisable case. Every BA has to take the decision regarding business/technical aspects of a project only after discussions and meetings with the appropriate members of the team. In this way meetings and team discussion come off as the most important aspects of BA’s decision making capabilities.

Question 61. What Is A Flowchart And Why It Is Important?
Answer :
Flowchart shows complete flow of system through symbols and diagrams. It is important, because it makes the system easy to understand for developers and all concerned people.

Question 62. Define Use Case Model?
Answer :
A business analysis presentation of the steps involved in defining the interactions between a user (actor) and a system (computer system) is termed as use case model. It gives details on the interactions and sets the expectations of how the user will work within the system. (e Learning Portal)
The use case model consist of 2 main elements:

Use case diagram – It is a graphical representation that details which actors can operate which use cases

Use case description – It is a detailed textual step by step presentation of interactions and dialogue between the actor and the system.

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